Four factors kill Chinese imagination
Thinking normative knowledge is inactive, divergent thinking development is hindered, innovative cognition is extraordinary-the article “Chinese Youth’s View of Success Is Too Narrow” published by this newspaper, reported on Dr. Xiaodong Yue from Harvard University and associate professor at City University of Hong Kong.There are a series of errors in the cognition of creativity, which has caused heated discussions in all sectors of society.
In his series of studies, the latest analysis of the reasons for the lack of creativity of the Chinese is also quite original, so this newspaper continues to publish to readers.
―—— Is the editor moon a lamp?
One night, a father took his 3-year-old son for a walk outside, and the son suddenly pointed at the bright moon in the sky and asked, “Is that a lamp?
“My father answered mechanically,” That’s not the lamp, it’s the moon.
“But the son still insisted that the moon is a lamp, and the father began to find his son very stupid, but after a careful consideration, he felt that his son was right, because the moon does have the function of lighting.
In Chinese, the word “ming” means sun and moon!
The scientist’s father who discovered that the moon was connected to the lamp was Yue Xiaodong, PhD from Harvard University, and associate professor at City University of Hong Kong.
In his words, he is the “stupid father” in front of his son.
It was a trivial matter that caused him to think about the roots of the Chinese lack of creativity.
Chinese people are less creative than Westerners. This is not only an example of years of academic research, but also a hot topic in education.
Joseph Needham, a famous British scholar, once asked: Why did China’s science and technology lead the West in the Tang and Song dynasties, but fell behind in the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Therefore, people have always thought that this is mainly the influence of Confucianism, or the limitation of small farmers’ economy.
However, after years of research and thinking, Dr. Yue Xiaodong proposed that the lack of creativity of Chinese people is more caused by the rigidity of teaching methods and insufficient use of knowledge.
In his view, there are four major factors that are not conducive to the development of Chinese creativity.
”Children are like a ‘question mark’ when they go to school and a ‘period’ when they graduate.
“-Neil the educator?
Postman’s “thinking norms are the primary factor in lethal Chinese creative thinking.
Dr. Xiaodong Yue pointed out, “It stands out as: fixed thinking function, authority and superstition, thinking inertia.
And all these can be described as the gradual consequences of the current “exam-oriented education”.
For example, in 1998, someone’s college entrance examination essay was titled “Toughness-A Character I’m Pursuing.”It ‘s incredible that the formulaic false idea of “to date” has been opened!
所以，“再没有比高考更加助长人的思维标准化了”，岳晓东博士认为，“所有的知识获取都应是‘进行时态的’，而非是‘完成时态的’，可高考的训练过程却让人把所有的知识都当成完成时态，促使孩子在学习中，只在乎‘什么是标准答案’，不在乎‘知识是怎样获取的’。As a result, students’ thinking is becoming more and more convergent, their imagination is withering, and their brains are filled with standard answers.
As a result, the rigidity of knowledge transfer has become the culprit of standardized thinking.
Without imagination and problem awareness, where does the knowledge update and progress come from?
So “Even for the sake of fairness, ‘exam-oriented education’ is irreplaceable. Teachers should also try their best to cultivate students’ critical thinking in teaching so that their knowledge will not grow at the expense of imagination.
In the end, knowledge is infinite and truth is relative. Knowledge is learned to develop truth, not superstition.
“After a thorough understanding of Western education, Dr. Yue discovered that Western education is fundamentally different from us: it cultivates students’ problem awareness and critical thinking from elementary school.
For example, when Chinese people talk about the Revolution of 1911, they must talk about time, place, people, events, meaning, and so on. In the end, students are required to write down all these things like running accounts. Americans will ask students to do group research and discuss their problems in the war of independence.Whether it happened or not, in the end, whether or not an independent war will happen is a question.
”Actually, I am a product with standardized thinking,” Dr. Yue said, “The reason why I cannot see the moon as a lamp is because my understanding of the moon is highly academic and literary: the moon is the earth.的卫星，月球的直径是地球的1/50，月亮上还住了一位怨女叫嫦娥，李商隐曾诗曰‘嫦娥应悔有灵药，碧海青天夜夜心’……这是典型的成年Thinking, lack of children’s intuitive vision.
, Dr. Yue often regards his son as his best creative mentor.
”American education forecasts foster self-confidence. Chinese students often lack self-confidence; American students are often arrogant and Chinese students are often humble.
Dr. Yang Zhenning Yue Xiaodong believes that the inactivation of knowledge is another important factor that leads to the lack of creativity of the Chinese people. It leads to the students’ knowledge acquisition “not seeing trees but not forests, and learning is not useful.”
Completely, knowledge inanimate refers to students’ inability to actively and effectively use what they have learned in their lives, lacking the desire and practice to apply what they have learned.
”Knowledge is less and fully used, and there is a sharp contrast with less knowledge and much use. The structure of our knowledge transfer now is to learn less and use less, or uselessly!
“Yue Xiaodong said.
Many teachers and students believe that the learning in middle school and even university is basic learning. The knowledge that has been learned is not used now and will be used in the future, so it is unnecessary to emphasize the combination of learning and use. This is actually a misunderstanding of knowledge and vitality!
Because if knowledge learning is only for some days in the future, then what day is it? Western education advocates discovery-based learning and experiential learning, which allows students to immediately see the results of their own learning, while our eastern education is mostly inculcated learning and recitative learning. It expects students to realize after many yearsMy own learning gains are actually very sad.
What is the ultimate goal of learning?
Whether to get a good grade or to use what you have learned.
One of Dr. Yue’s own personal experiences was instructive.
While studying at Harvard, he found that a sophomore student was contributing to a Japanese magazine while he was studying. He believed that his schooling experience at Harvard was loved by many “fans.”
As a result, the magazine sponsored him to travel to Japan to make a lecture.
This incident greatly touched Dr. Yue, “In my 24 years of student life, the first 22 years of study were to get a good grade. I never thought of selling what I learned, and that studentWhen I was a sophomore, I learned and used it lively, and now I buy it now. This is not the activation of knowledge!
“So Dr. Yue also sorted out his homework, started to submit to domestic magazines, and finally published the first article at the age of 32. It was too late!
Dr. Yue Xiaodong internally, many colleges and universities made academic reports and found that when he asked, those who have published articles please raise their hands, some doctoral students did not raise their hands.
When you ask, how old are you going to publish your first article? Most people say that they will publish it after the master’s thesis is written.
This shows that Chinese students are in an inertial thinking, that is, “I have very little knowledge now, what qualifications do I have to publish articles” or “What I have learned is not solid enough, how can I publish articles”, in contrast, “FamousPsychologist Piaget published an article at the age of 12, and my mentor published an article at the age of 19, and I was all unresponsive!
“Yue Xiaodong said.
He believes that “the revitalization of knowledge requires the realization of learning-when you are not aware, your learning is always passive, and when you begin to become aware, knowledge becomes active and can be realized earlier.Realize its value.
“So, the study of knowledge should make people more and more self-confident and proactive, rather than more and more inferior and passive.
”If someone claims to have learned to think, most people think he is thinking logically.
“-Edward, an innovation educator?
In the opinion of Dr. Yue Xiaodong, the development of divergent thinking is another important reason for the lack of creativity of the Chinese.
Psychology believes that convergent thinking is based on logical thinking, and it is very interrelated between objects. It tries to form various modes of understanding of external things and pursues the only correct answer to problem solving. Divergent thinking is based on image thinking.It does not highlight the mutual relationship between things, nor does it pursue the only correct answer to the problem. It tries to think about the same problem from different angles and propose different answers.
In fact, convergent thinking is logical thinking, deductive, inductive thinking, and divergent thinking is imagination, which is image thinking.
For example, in aggregate thinking, 1 plus 1 can only be equal to 2; but in divergent thinking, 1 plus 1 can have various answers, such as equal to 3 (such as a couple getting married and having a child) and equal to 1 (two people working together and twisting togetherRope), is equal to 0 (two people are in conflict, and dismantle each other).
In Chinese, it can also be equal to two, ten, king, Tian, etc., all kinds are manifestations of divergent thinking or imagination.
”The simultaneous development of convergent thinking and divergent thinking can enable people to have both a knowledge base and an innovative ability.
Unfortunately, in today’s education system, the development of convergent thinking is often sacrificed at the expense of divergent thinking.
In fact, after a person enters school, his imagination is declining through the continuous improvement of his logical thinking ability.
This situation reached the peak of high school!
It leads students to think how to get things simple, how to save things, how to do things, and to fix the psychological set and function of all things in the world.
At present, Chinese students lack the complementarity of convergent thinking and divergent thinking in their thinking training, and they cannot develop innovative thinking.
Dr. Yue opened a course on innovation and problem solving at the City University of Hong Kong. During the class, he often did divergent thinking activities with students, such as answering the questions in “Brain Turn” and found 100 uses of the cupIn order to cultivate students’ ability to find differences, reverse thinking, and problem consciousness, these activities are welcomed by students.
Einstein once said: “Imagination is more important than knowledge, because knowledge is limited, and imagination summarizes everything in the world, promotes progress and is the source of knowledge progress.
Dr. Yue believes that Einstein’s success lies in the simultaneous development of his divergent thinking and convergent thinking, which are complementary to each other, and not substitute and conflict with each other as in our education system.
”Innovation in everyday life is the greatest expression of creativity and the greatest expression of personal success.
—— Dr. Steinberger Yue Xiaodong, a well-known American psychologist, believes that “the extraordinary recognition of creativity” is also an important factor hindering the development of Chinese creativity.
The Chinese people’s understanding of creativity has always been influenced by the “extraordinary” view, that is, to link creativity with major breakthroughs and inventions in science and technology, and believe that creativity is the specialty of a few talented people and a manifestation of special abilities.
In the eyes of many Chinese, only Copernicus discovered the laws of the sun and the earth and established the heliocentric theory; Pasteur discovered the rabies vaccine; Darwin discovered the laws of biological evolution, and discoveries such as the theory of evolution can be regarded as creation.
”If we look at creativity like this, we ordinary people will never be able to make a difference in our lives, because we can almost never reach the standards of Newton, Edison, Einstein.
“Yue Xiaodong said.
In this way, he pointed out that we must step out of the “mundane theory” of creative cognition, vigorously advocate the “ordinary theory” view, combine creativity with peaceful innovation and change, and think that creativity is inherent to people.The ability needs to be continuously developed and utilized.
In fact, creativity is diversified, living, and ubiquitous in life.
”Every year around the Spring Festival, Chinese restaurants in Hong Kong serve a dish called ‘Gold and Silver’.It is actually scrambled eggs, in which the yolk is gold and the protein is silver. It is auspicious, highlighting the creativity of life!
Dr. Yue also cited the example of Zheng He, who led a fleet of 10,000 people to the west, which is a manifestation of his extraordinary creativity.
But what people don’t know is that Zheng He invented Mahjong according to the wind direction in the voyage, the bamboo tube storing water, the copper coins of the crew, etc. Although this is an expression of ordinary creativity, it has made outstanding contributions to the Chinese nation!
Therefore, in the process of education, we must help the number of students worship the academic authority, and use education to improve the self-confidence of the students and discover the various manifestations of ordinary creativity.
Expert Profile Yue Xiaodong, a well-known psychologist and a PhD in Harvard University’s Department of Human Development and Psychology, is currently teaching at the Department of Applied Sociology at City University of Hong Kong.
Further research in psychological counseling, innovative thinking, youth idolatry, etc.
Four recommendations from other experts on stones help you to improve your creativity. Under the current educational environment and cultural traditions, what methods can we use to improve our creativity?
Dr. Xiaodong Yue first proposed a new understanding of the meaning of creativity.
Based on this, he made an image metaphor: “Creativity is to make familiar things strange, and then to make strange things familiar.
“In his view, most of Edison’s inventions have such characteristics, and the search for 100 uses of cups is a direct expression of creativity.
In essence, Dr. Xiaodong Yue suggested that the cultivation of multiple thinking and critical consciousness should be strengthened, and the inertia of precise thinking standardized.
He also proposed to do more activities such as “one solution and one solution” and “multiple solution and one solution”. For example, 1000 consists of 8 8s, which can be 8 + 8 + 8 + 88 + 888 = 1000, or (8888-888) = 8 = 1000.
This thinking game will form a habit of creative impulse and multiple thinking from a young age, and “Brain Turn” is the best activity of “multiple questions and one solution”.
Third, the leadership of Dr. Yue should strengthen the consciousness of learning, and find ways to use the knowledge learned.
Yue Xiaodong pointed out that the “case teaching method” advocated by American universities is to avoid teachers’ “full house” and encourage students to take the initiative to think.
In the textbooks of western universities, there are some exercises that train critical thinking at the end of each chapter to help students realize their vitality.
Finally, Dr. Yue advocates strengthening cross-learning methods.
Mathematics master Hiebert said: “Why in our generation can Einstein say the most insightful and profound things about space and time?
This is because he has not learned all the philosophy and mathematics of time and space.
Dr. Yue Xiaodong believes that this famous saying speaks of the great significance of cross-learning to inspire people’s creativity. It makes people jump out of the traditionally formed pitfalls and will continue to have surprising new discoveries.